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Changes in physical and chemical properties during the production of palm sugar syrup by open pan and vacuum evaporator

Palm sugar syrup is obtained by heating palm sap until it is concentrated. In this study, palm sugar syrup was produced using two processing methods, including open pan (110oC) and vacuum evaporator under 70 and 80oC. The physical and chemical properties evaluated were colour (L and a), browning intensity (BI), fructose, glucose, sucrose content, HMF content and protein content. Samples were collected at 15 min (for open pan) and 10 min (for vacuum evaporator) intervals until the end of each process. The properties of each collected sample during heating were significantly different (P<0.05) in each sample. During each heating process, Maillard reaction and caramelization occurred as indicated by an increase in a value, BI and HMF content and a decrease in L value (P<0.05). An increase in reducing sugar with heating times in each process (P<0.05) was also observed due to the inversion reaction. Samples heated by open pan showed a higher non-enzymatic browning reaction and inversion reaction than samples heated by vacuum evaporator, indicated by a higher a value, browning intensity, HMF, fructose, glucose and lower L value and sucrose content than those heated by vacuum evaporator. Additionally, samples heated by vacuum evaporator under 80oC showed lower L value and sucrose content and higher a value, browning intensity, HMF, fructose, glucose than the samples produced by vacuum evaporator under 70oC

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