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Study of the sugar cane juice concentration during production of granulated panela by direct boiling in open systems at environment conditions

Granulated panela has a long cultural heritage in Central and South America. Most artisan farmers in these countries use a simple crusher consisting of two or three metal roller, operated by diesel power, to compress the sugar cane and extract the juice. The extracted juice is then filtered through cloths or sieves and removed from it, macro solid particles by sedimentation in a precleaner tank. After that, the juice is collected and heated in a first open pan at 60-70 °C, in which the clarification of juice is carried out using natural mucilage extracted from endemic bushes of the region (Gonzales, 2001). In order to boil and concentrate the clarified juice, it is sequentially transferred to a second and third, open pans. Boiling temperature is between 89 to 92 °C, and the juice is boiled until soluble solid contents near to 70 Brix. The concentration of soluble solids in the juice increases the temperature, exceeding 100 °C. Just before of the syrup solidification, the temperature is ranging between 118 to 125 °C, and the soluble solid content of syrup is higher than 88 Brix. In this point, the resulting syrup is poured into in other pan and strongly mixed to obtain the granulated panela (Lara and Clavijo, 2004). This study shows the increasing of temperature during the boiling-concentration time of juice batches and its effect on the soluble solids (Brix), water activity, titratable acidity and color

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